Category: Education

The process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development, is known as education. Education began as a means of passing down cultural heritage from one generation to the next. Today, educational goals are increasingly encompassing new ideas such as learner liberation, critical thinking about presented information, skills required for modern society, empathy, and complex vocational skills.

According to UNESCO, there are three main learning environments.

Formal education occurs in educational and training institutions, is usually structured by curricular goals and objectives, and is typically guided by a teacher. Formal education is compulsory in most regions up to a certain age and is commonly divided into educational stages such as kindergarten, primary school, and secondary school. Nonformal learning occurs in addition to or instead of formal education. It may be structured in accordance with educational arrangements, but in a more flexible manner, and typically takes place in community, workplace, or civil society settings. Finally, informal settings occur in daily life, in the family, and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts, whether unintentional or intentional, may be considered educational. In practice, there is a continuum from highly formalized to highly informalized settings, and informal learning can take place in all three. Homeschooling, for example, can be classified as nonformal or informal, depending on the structure.

Teaching, training, storytelling, discussion, and directed research are all examples of educational methods that can be used in any setting. The methodology of teaching is referred to as pedagogy. A wide range of philosophies, theories, and empirical research agendas underpin education.

There are movements for education reform, such as improving the quality and efficiency of education to make it more relevant in students’ lives and efficient problem solving in modern or future society, or for evidence-based education methodologies. Some governments and the United Nations have recognized the right to an education. Global initiatives aim to achieve SDG 4, which calls for universal access to high-quality education.